Glossary

HCS

Hierarchical Cell Structure is the architecture of a multi-layered cellular network where subscribers are handed over from the macro to the micro to the pico layer, depending on the current network capacity and needs of the subscriber. 

Hotspot

Can be either a WiFi or mobile phone wireless access point for connecting to the internet. 

HSPA

High Speed Packet Analysis. Often referred to as 3.5G, this is an extension to the original 3G standard providing significantly higher data rates. HSDPA (downlink) can provide theoretical maximum download speeds of 14.4 Mbps. HSUPA (uplink) supports maximum upload speeds of 5.76 Mbps. 

Inside Plant Fiber Optic Design

All the cabling and equipment installed inside of a telecommunications facility, including the main distribution frame (MDF) and all the equipment extending inward therefrom.

Lateral Connection

Fiber optic strands, from the demarcation point in a building, including any equipment at the demarcation point necessary to connect the fiber to Customer Premises Equipment, to the point at which such fiber optic strands are spliced with other fiber optic strands that serve multiple buildings, and any existing related duct, conduit, or other containing or support structure. 

Layer 1 Network

The first layer of the Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) Model. Layer 1. It serves as the foundation, the fundamental layer underneath the logical data structures of other higher level network functions. This is considered as the most complex layer simply because of all the different hardware combinations there is possible. 

LE

A Lease Exhibit is a basic mock-up of current and proposed equipment and modifications on a site; generally attached to lease agreements. 

Lease Review/Audit

Completed at beginning of the project; thorough review of current site lease to compile landlord information and the rights of a wireless carrier at a specific site. 

LOA (Letter of Authorization)

Given by building owner; gives tenant permission to pull permits for telecom work. 

Long Haul Networks

Optical fiber networks connect cities and countries throughout the world. Today, these networks typically range from a few hundred to several thousand kilometers, and have largely migrated to 100G-based dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems with 80 channels or more. 

LTE

Long Term Evolution is a broadband access technology that enhances the ability of mobile users to access larger amounts of data. LTE is in direct competition with WiMax to become the universal 4G network. LTE operates on a lower frequency of 700 MHz, giving it enhanced signal range and building/obstacle penetration.  

Media Access Control, or MAC

Address in each incoming message frame which output port to forward it to and out of. In a wide area packet-switched network such as the Internet, a switch determines (from the IP address in each packet) which output port to use for the next part of its trip to the intended destination. 

Microwave

A wireless backhaul alternative to fiber/Ethernet lines that is often cheaper, however, the connections are slower. 

Middle Mile

The segment of the network linking a network operator’s core network to the local network plant. This includes both the backhaul network to the nearest aggregation point and any other parts of the network needed to connect the aggregation point to the nearest point of presence on the operator’s core network. 

MLA (Master License Agreement)

Agreement between a carrier and, most often, a tower management or utility company that defines the terms and conditions that are applicable to several cell sites. 

MmWave

Refers to the ultra-high frequency, between 30Ghz and 300 Ghz. 

Mobile Broadband

Wireless high-speed internet accessed through a portable modem, cellphone, or other device. 

Mount Analysis

A mount analysis identifies the severity of equipment degradation and indicates exactly what is required in order to modify the mount, thereby initiating meaningful change to create cost-effective, safe, intelligent solutions. Conducting an accurate, timely analysis helps to ensure mounts perform to design and provide a safe environment for valued carrier equipment and field services personnel. 

NEC and IBC

National Electrical Code & International Building Code are an established set of standards and practices that must be followed when running wire and making connections in various settings and applications, including what materials are acceptable, what kinds of redundancies need to be in place, and what methods and protocols must be followed. 

NEPA

The National Environmental Policy Act is a United States environmental law that established a U.S. national policy promoting the enhancement of the environment. 

Network

A telecommunications network is a collection of terminals, links, and nodes which connect together to enable telecommunication between users of the terminals. Networks may use circuit switching or message switching. Each terminal in a network must have a unique address so messages or connections can be routed to the correct location. 

Network Lateral Movement

Network Lateral Movement, or simply “Lateral Movement”, refers to the techniques that cyber attackers, or “threat actors”, use to progressively move through a network as they search for the key data and assets that are ultimately the target of their attack campaigns. 

New Site Development

Is the process of designing, planning, procuring, and developing new telecom sites. 

NSB (New Site Build)

A wireless site that needs to be built “from the ground up”; no previous equipment or colocation on site. Sometimes NSBs are on “raw land.”

NTP (Notice To Proceed)

The point at which the carrier has determined that installation of the product and modifications to the site can begin. 

OSHA 10 & OSHA 30

The OSHA (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) Outreach Training Program trains workers in the basics of occupational safety and health. OHSA 10 (10 hours of construction training) and OSHA 30 (30 hours of construction training) were developed to assist employers with training and introducing employees to the basic practices of identifying, reducing, eliminating and reporting hazards associated with their work. 

Outside Plant Fiber Optic Design

Refers to all of the physical cablings and supporting infrastructure and any associated hardware located between a demarcation point in a switching facility and a demarcation point in another switching center or customer premises. 

Permitting

The process of obtaining a license or other document given by an authorized public official or agency (eg: building/land inspector) to allow a person or business to perform certain acts.  

Phase 2

Ordered when there are recognized environmental issues/contaminants at a site, which come up during a Phase 1; related to compliance. Most companies don’t want to be associated with them because of liability issues. 

Private LTE

A network that is run specifically for the benefit of an organization, such as a utility, factory or police department. Only authorized users of that organization have access to the network. The organization decides where there will be coverage, how the network will perform, who has access and priority. 

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